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…He will keep His promise, and will listen to the voices of His Hawaiian children lamenting for their homes. It is for them that I would give the last drop of my blood; it is for them that I would spend, nay, am spending, everything belonging to me.
Queen's parents Queen family

Birth

1838

Lydia Liliʻu Loloku Walania Wewehi Kamakaʻeha is born at her family home at Pūowaina to Analeʻa Keohokālole of Kailua-Kona and Caesar Kapaʻakea of Maui. She becomes the hānai daughter of High Chief Abner Pākī and Chiefess Laura Kōnia.

She was baptized into the Christian faith with the name Lydia Kamaka‘eha Pākī.

A discussion on the Queen’s early residences is available here from the Historic Hawaiʻi Foundation.

Queen' portrait Royal School

Youth

Schooling

Begins her formal education at The Chiefs’ Children’s School, founded by Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli) exclusively for the benefit of young royals. Today, it is a public elementary called the Royal School.

E ʻonipa‘a … i ka ‘imi na‘auao” (Be steadfast in the seeking of knowledge).
Dinner party
Lili‘uokalani and John Owen Dominis

Marriage

Marries John Owen Dominis at the age of 24. The couple moves to Washington Place, which was built by the groom’s father, Captain John Dominis. Today, it is a National Historic Landmark and the official residence of the Governor of the State of Hawaiʻi.

Piano

Music

Writes The national anthem

Composes He Mele Lāhui Hawaiʻi at the request of Kamehameha V. This becomes the Hawaiian national anthem until Hawaiʻi Ponoʻī is composed by King David Kalākaua in 1876.

Accession to the Throne.

Heir to the Throne

Named as heir apparent to King Kalākaua and given the name of Princess Liliʻuokalani.

1878

Visits the United States for the first time, touring California.

1878

Pens one of her most recognizable works, Aloha ʻOe.

1887

Travels to England for the Golden Jubilee of Queen Victoria, marking the 50th anniversary of the British monarch’s accession to the throne. While abroad, King Kalākaua is forced by the Honolulu Rifles to sign the “Bayonet Constitution” at gunpoint. The monarchy relinquishes much of its power to the Legislature.

Queen Lili‘uokalani

1891

Liliʻuokalani ascends to the throne upon the death of King Kalākaua. She names Kaʻiulani, daughter of Princess Miriam Likelike and Archibald Scott Cleghorn, as heir apparent.

Iolani Palace
Queen portrait Queen portrait

The Overthrow

1893

Liliʻuokalani is overthrown by a group of local businessmen and sugar planters, with the assistance of the U.S. Marines. To avoid bloodshed of her people, she yielded. A provisional government is established with Sanford B. Dole as president.

1895 - Imprisonment

Liliʻuokalani is alleged to have knowledge of counterrevolutionary activities and is held in house arrest at ʻIolani Palace. Information about the room in which she was held for eight months is available here. During this time, she translates Kalākaua's text of the Kumulipo, or Hawaiian creation chant, into English. She is later released on parole, pardoned, and departs for Washington, D.C. to seek help for the restoration of her kingdom from U.S. President Grover Cleveland.

1896 - Change in faith

Liliʻuokalani, a lifelong Christian and member of Kawaiahaʻo Church, is baptized into the Epsicopal faith by Bishop Willis at St. Andrews Cathedral in downtown Honolulu.

That first night of my imprisonment was the longest night I have ever passed in my life; it seemed as though the dawn of day would never come.

Annexation

1898 - Annexation of Hawai‘i

The United States annexes the Hawaiian Kingdom.

Liliʻuokalani publishes Hawaii’s Story by Hawaii’s Queen.

1899

Kaʻiulani dies at age 23 of inflammatory rheumatism.

1900

Hawaiʻi is annexed to and becomes a territory of the United States.

Her Music

Musical Legacy

Aside from Lili‘uokalani’s role as a devoted monarch, she was also a faithful scholar and an extraordinary musician and composer. She was well versed in hymns and ballads of American and European influence, as well as traditional Hawaiian chant and prose. In her lifetime, Queen Lili‘uokalani composed more than 150 songs, including her most famous piece, “Aloha ‘Oe.”

I could not turn back the time for political change, but there is still time to save our heritage. You must remember never to cease to act because you fear you may fail.

Her Lasting Mission

1909 - Deed of Trust

Liliʻuokalani executes a Deed of Trust. This establishes the legal and financial foundation for a perpetual institution dedicated to the welfare of orphaned Hawaiian children.

1911

On her 73rd birthday, Lili‘uokalani gifted a piece of property near Waikahalulu Stream in Nu‘uanu for the public’s use and enjoyment. Today, this is known as the Lili‘uokalani Botanical Garden.

All the property of the Trust Estate … shall be used by the Trustees for the benefit of orphan and other destitute children in the Hawaiian Islands, the preference given to Hawaiian children of pure or part-aboriginal blood.

Her Passing

1917 - death

Dies from a stroke at the age of 79. Prior to her death, schools of ʻāweoweo, traditionally a symbol of the imminent passing of an aliʻi, were sighted. At midnight, “Royal Rain” fell lightly on the procession as her body was taken from Washington Place to the Throne Room of ‘Iolani Palace where she lay in state. Upon arrival, intermittent thunder rumbled. This was considered as a good ho‘ailona, or sign.

At midnight on the following day, her body, preceded by the flaming torch (the emblem of the Kalākaua Dynasty) and sacred kāhili, was taken to Kawaiaha‘o Church where she lay in state for the next seven days. Her remains were then taken in a procession along King Street and Nu‘uanu Avenue, and placed in the Royal Mausoleum at Mauna ‘Ala. Her death marks the end of the Kalākaua Dynasty.

Aloha ‘oe, farewell to thee... One fond embrace before I now depart. Until we meet again.
Pam Pacific Banquet

The Queen Lives On in LT

The Lili‘uokalani Trust was born out of the aloha and compassion that the Queen had for the destitute children and families of Hawai‘i. Queen Lil‘uokalani inspires us to perpetuate her noble legacy through works that nature Hawaiian children and help them attain a better quality of life.